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Nathaniel P. Hill Library


Citations - Quick Tips


When citing information (whether quoted or paraphrased) in the text of your paper, insert a footnote to give proper credit. HINT: use NoodleTools to get the proper footnote format, and then use the "Insert Footnote" button in Microsoft Word. 


  • Full Footnote: Use the full footnote ONLY the first time you use the source in your paper.
  • Shortened Footnote: Use the shortened footnote any other time after that, except when using Ibid.
  • Ibid: Type the word "Ibid" to indicate that you are using the same source as the one in the footnote directly above it. If the information is from a different page from the source, type "Ibid, page number" (Ex: Ibid, 8). HINT: you should not use Ibid very often...mix your sources!


Attach a bibliography to the end of your assignment that lists all of the sources that you used. Note that the formatting for citations in the bibliography is different from the formatting of the footnote. NoodleTools will help you with this!


A. In-text citation

  • for a quotation or paraphrase: must include author, year of publication and page numbers (if available).

1. Author

  • 1 author: (Jones, 1998, p. 199)
  • 2 authors: (Jones & Evans, 1998, p. 199) or Jones and Evans (1998) argue...
  • 3-5 authors: (Jones, Evans, Hooper & Seals, 1998, p. 199) or Jones
  • 6+ authors: (Jones et al., 1998, p. 199
  • Author Unknown: use the beginning of the title (“Using APA”, 1998, p. 199) or (APA Citation, 1998, p. 199)
  • More author info:

2. Year of publication

  • If date unknown, use: (n.d.)

3. Page number (if available)

  • Punctuation: Pay careful attention to the formatting of the sentence punctuation with the in-text citations. Parentheses fall within the existing sentence punctuation, but outside of any quotation marks. See example to the right. >
  • Long quotations (40 words or longer) should be formatted as a block quote (1/2 indent from margin). The in-text citation is listed after the final punctuation (in contrast to the short quotes or paraphrasing listed above). See example at right >
  • Citing an indirect source: If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.


  • According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
  • Jones and Evans (n.d.) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
  • She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones et al., 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.


  • According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (p. 199).
  • APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Long Quote:

Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style,especially when it was their first time citing  sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style  manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Indirect Source:

  • Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

B. Reference List:

  • You must include a complete list of all of the sources that you used on a separate page under the title "References".
  • We recommend using Noodletools to format your APA citations into a proper Reference List. See example below.


  • Double-spaced

  • Alphabetized by author's last name.

  • Hanging indent

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